There are two distinct seasons in Ethiopia. The dry season prevails from October through May; the wet season runs from June to September, but there is also a short rainy season in March or April, especially toward southern Ethiopia, and rain can happen at any time of the year. However, even during the long rainy season, bright, warm
sun usually breaks through the clouds at least once a day. The climate is mainly influenced by altitude and cloud cover rather than the time of the year. This is due to its proximity to the equator. The main climatic regions are as follows:
• Alpine climate (worch)
This area covers the afro-alpine zone, much of it above the tree line, with temperatures generally below 10 degrees C. Snow is possible at any time of the year, but usually falls as hail that can accumulate on the ground, even at lower altitudes.
• Cool to cold climate (degga)
This is typical of the cool highlands where the average temperature falls between 10 and 16 degrees C. The altitude ranges from 2,600m to 3,200m above sea level.
• Warm to cool climate (weyna degga)
The average annual temperature ranges between 16 and 20 degrees C and includes most of the highlands between 1,500m and 2,600m above sea level.
• Warm to hot climate (kolla)
This is the climate of the hot lowlands. The average temperature ranges between 20 and 30 degrees C. The altitude ranges from 500m to 1,500m above sea level.
•Hot and arid climate (bereha)
This area covers the desert lowlands less than 500m above sea level with an average annual temperature of over 30 degrees C.The eastern and the northeastern lowlands have desert climates, while the lowlands on the western and southern margins are humid and tropical, with mean annual temperatures of 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Rainfall is heavier in the western half of the country, varying from 800mm per year in the northwest to over 2,200mm per year in the southwest. The northeastern and southeastern parts of Ethiopia, on the other hand,
are drier with annual rainfalls ranging from 1,000mm to less than 200mm.
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